Thursday, December 26, 2019
Defining Freedom - Definition By Experience Ã¢â¬Å"FreedomÃ¢â¬ is a very difficult term to define with a short, simple statement. It is loaded with so much meaning because every person has a different set of personal experiences and ideas that can apply to their own concept of what experiencing freedom is all about. In defining freedom, it is best to start with a wide array of different ideas and put them together to create one major explanation that encompasses all the ideas. The Oxford English Dictionary offers several short definitions that can be used to build one ultimate definition. The first offered is Ã¢â¬Å"Exemption or release from slavery or imprisonment; personal liberty.Ã¢â¬ This definition only relates to someone who is or was in completeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These decisions apply to personal affairs like love and religion, civil affairs including laws and politics, and everyday choices about personal action and thought. The concept of freedom is very prominent in Renaissance literature because the time period is laden with constant uncertainty about authority. Monarchs were floundering, education was spreading, and feudalism was no longer the way of organizing labor. Suddenly, a much larger group of people had access to books including The Bible and took a greater interest in their faith. Knowledge of all aspects of society including politics, religion, science, and labor was a form of rebellion against the minority of authority figures at the time. This new passion for personal discovery and self determination manifested itself in the literature of the day. A new focus on subjectivity and feeling became the way to express oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. Renaissance literature helps to formulate the concept of freedom because it explains all the different types of liberty with examples. The first type: personal liberty mostly applies to events of personal devotion like love or religion. It seems like most of the Renaissance authors felt marriage was more of a denial of personal liberty. Bacon writes in his essay Of Marriage and the Single Life, Ã¢â¬Å"the most ordinary cause of a single life, is libertyÃ¢â¬ (1750). Mary Wroth seems to echo BaconÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts as she laments in one of herShow MoreRelatedThe Impossibility Of Religious Freedom1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe act of defining religion has been a contentious issue in a wide variety of situations, particularly in the United States. The US is a nation that prides itself on religious inclusivity and freedom. There are consequences to this belief and tenant. Through the social, legal and moral structures of the United States, defining religion has become imperative. In Th e Impossibility of Religious Freedom, Winifred Sullivan outlines the legal implications of defining religion in the United States. InRead More The Complexity of Sex in a Complex Culture Essay example1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Complexity of Sex in a Complex Culture Ã Ã Ã Ã Sex is a universal irony.Ã Modern society is bombarded by sexual images yet the definition of sex is much more hidden.Ã The words sex, love making, and sexual relations may be perceived differently from one person to the next.Ã Sex is an abstract word, difficult to define because of a taboo in America against publicly discussing the issue.Ã Thus, because the topic of sex is discussed among friends privately more often than publiclyRead MoreThe United Nations Universal Human Rights Essay1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslimitations of each. 2. Articles 22 and 27Ã¢â¬â¢s Definition of Ã¢â¬ËCulturalÃ¢â¬â¢ and Connection to Cultural Relativism While Articles 22 and 27 do not outline a clear definition of Ã¢â¬ËcultureÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëcultural,Ã¢â¬â¢ I understand these specific Articles to describe Ã¢â¬ËculturalÃ¢â¬â¢ as the practices within a specific community that members of the community use to mature. Specifically, Article 22Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personalityÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âuses culture as a freedom necessary for individual dignity andRead MoreEssay about Feminism1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbiological makeup (Lacqueur, 18). This is especially true in any college, where categories are institutionalized in order to help guide students along their academic path. It is hard to imagine academics as a purely uncategorized and unconceptualized experience (Lacqueur, 19). However, categories have a way of excluding some people, since people are diverse and do not fit into neat containers. This holds especially true with the Feminist Gender Studies Program. The term feminist is a category thatRead MoreAmerican Freedom Of Speech And Expression1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesworkforce because they have multiple freedoms, rights to be themselves, as well as gratitude towards the United States of America. Many Characteristics can be used to describe an American but self-expression and hard work are the most important ones. These characteristics are what helped the American society grow into the strong community it is today. To begin with, AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s are admired for their freedom. In America, people believe a person is born with rights and freedoms. People in America are freeRead MoreMorality, Justice, And Legitimacy1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNietzsche the reader will be able to grasp the definition of Rousseau where he states that the only way in which Legitimate Political power is presented when they govern their citizens with consent and equality. Along with Nietzsche definition of justice they express similar concerns that come when States govern their citizens as well as explaining why other forms of legitimacy presented by other philosophers arenÃ¢â¬â¢t valid and have fault by not truly defining when it legitimate. Rousseau and NietzscheRead MoreMusic And Its Influence On Art949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesimagination are utilized when making art; art is an expression of emotions and ideas. It encourages freedom and liberates people from the constraints of Ã¢â¬Å"right and wrong.Ã¢â¬ Saying that jazz music is not art would contradict the main purpose of art. A defining characteristic of jazz music is improvisation. A jazz musicianÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to improvise and compose on the spot provides them with an artistic freedom that not all other genres of music possess. At one point during the hard bop tune, Ã¢â¬Å"This I Dig ofRead MoreUtilitarianism And Its Moral Value1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdirectly on the intent behind an action. The central concept behind utilitarianism, happiness, requires that there be an objective fact of the matter about how much happiness exists. Before defining happiness, instrumental and intrinsic value must also be introduced, as they are necessary concepts for defining the relationship between an action and its moral value. Instrumental value revolves around a certain Ã¢â¬Å"anythingÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ usefulness in seeing a process through completion, while a certain Ã¢â¬Å"anythingÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ Read MoreIntroduction Of Women s Studies 101.1002 Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJackson November 7. 2016 Blurring the Lines Realness defined by the dictionary definition is existing or occurring as fact; actual rather than imaginary, ideal, or fictitious but taking it a step further and defining it in the drag world, realness commonly refers to the ability to Ã¢â¬Å"blendÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"passÃ¢â¬ as the opposite sex. The entirety of Janet Mock s Redefining Realness is exactly that, to take her own definition of the word and use it as a non-conformative mean to achieve self-actualization,Read MoreGay Marriage1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMoody, a Baptist minister, addresses the issue of state versus church in the matter of gay marriage in his article published in 2004 in the Nation. MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"Gay Marriage Shows Why We Need to Separate Church and StateÃ¢â¬ , reiterates that when defining the right to gay marriage, there should be a clear separation between church and state due to the fact that heterosexual marriage in this country is based and granted from a purely legal (state) stan dpoint. Moody begins by discussing the motive for
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
In this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s assigned reading, I was captured by the dynamics of evil and administrative evil in the authors seek to provide a more affluent and deeper description of evil in general and of administrative evil. The common characteristic of administrative evil is that the typical person inside of their normal professional and administrative roles can participate in demonstrations of evil without being mindful that they are doing anything incorrectly. Administrative evil can be simply taking home office supplies. I know that is not ethical to take home supplies, but it is definitely hard for most people to consider the simple act of taking home office supplies an act of administrative evil. Under states of good reversal, individuals may even view their insidious movement as great. Adams and Balfour examine the ignored relationship in between evil and public administration, and additionally different fields and professions in public life. During a time when bureaucrat bashing is trendy, Adams and Balfour express the notion to move past such shallow scrutinizes and lay the basis for a more moral and law based on public life. The public life is sought to perceive its potential for abhorrence and along these lines makes more prominent conceivable outcomes for staying away from the shrouded pathways that prompt dehumanization and annihilation. Adams and Balfour see evil as existing on a continuum that stretches out from terrible mass emissions of savagery, for example, theShow MoreRelatedEthical Codes Of Ethics And Ethics2307 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesdiscussing and thinking of the complex theories of ethics and how they relate to mankind for centuries. The history of human ethical philosophy is far greater and more complex than this paper can ever truly attempt to define or explain. Great philosophers like Aristotle, Machiavelli, Kant and Mills have already taken on the aforementioned task. This paper is not an attempt to replicate their work or explain their work, instead this paper will look to take the theories they have presented along with theRead MoreMy Goals For An Organization Theory And Design1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprogress, just how much I am benefiting from a course, and meet the standards for achieving outstanding performance in course assessments. In terms of such learning goals For MGT363-Organization Theor y and Design, I want to be able to effectively apply and utilize course content regarding organization theories, and design to the real world of organizations, and in my personal life. I will aim to achieve this goal through keeping up with role plays, assigned readings, and exercises, allowing me to makeRead MoreEthics And Its Impact On Society849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesterms and methodologies were a little familiar, but these are still difficult concepts to interpret. The videos that went along with each module were very well done. The videos for the class did help make the clarification of the various ethical theories a little easier to understand. The different links to article for further reading also helped immensely. As for perplexing moments, it just required additional reading and some goggle searches for other examples. The discussion boards are reallyRead MoreEssay on Cyber-plagiarism1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshigher learning. But the Web now features dozens of similar si tes--from the Evil House of Cheat to Research Papers Online--which enable students to purchase ready-made term papers on a wide variety of subjects. The companies, of course, maintain they are merely providing learning materials for inquisitive students. But theres good reason to think online plagiarism is becoming a real problem on college campuses. The Evil House of Cheat page now boasts over one million hits; A1 Termpaper claimsRead MoreThe Effective Management Of A Contemporary Organisation1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswas the development of classical approaches, involving Scientific management, Administrative principles, and Bureaucratic organisation. Then followed by the development of behavioral approaches to management, focusing on the human element of the workplace. These included the well-known Hawthorn Studies and MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human needs, which involved five levels of human needs as well as McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory X and Theory Y. There was the development of systems thinking, which involved a collectionRead MoreThe Persecution Of The Jewish People1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere is masses of historical deba te surrounding the progression of Jewish persecution by the Nazis, this often fuelled by Ã¢â¬ËintentionalistsÃ¢â¬â¢, who believe Genocide was indeed the intention of one man from the beginning, rather than the theories of the Ã¢â¬Ëmoderate functionalists Ã¢â¬Ë, that reason that the persecution of the Jewish people was a progression of radical policy ,of an entire group of people, due to the perceived failings of the Nazis previous racial policies. Section 2 Introduction - Nazi RegimeRead MoreThe Creation Of The Presidency1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRevolutionary War at the time illuminated the need for a strong government that was able to act in times of crisis. This created the idea that government was a necessary evil for the founders. Thach examines the failures and success of State constitutions, and the national legislature to show how limited government was transformed from political theory to positive law in the United States. In politics there is a lingering question of what determines good government, ThachÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis on the American system proveRead MoreCan Torture Ever Be Justified?1596 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe lives of innocent people prevails the infliction of physical pains to criminals. Others reject torture as both unreliable and an insult to basic principles of human rights. Some people have attempted to justify the use of torture with just war theory and the infamous ticking time-bomb scenario. For instance, one pundit argues, if it is moral to go to war and kill thousands to prevent potential acts of terror on U.S. soil, why cannot we inflict pain on one man, if that would stop imminent actsRead MoreEmployee Retention1754 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagestheir employees satisfied and working. Motivation Theories The Justice Theories allow for a different approach to motivation. The focus within these theories is of fair treatment of employees by the organization (Spector, 2012). The underlying clause states that people value fairness and will continue to maintain fairness within their own relationships and the organizations, as well. The Equity theory is contained within the Justice Theories it states, Ã¢â¬Å"people are motivated to achieve a conditionRead More A Brief Analysis of The Steel Industry Essay example1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhich would be much faster than the old pudding iron. This method also lowered costs from $100.00 to $12.00 a ton. (Wren, 1976/2005) Carnegie would go on to later combine EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s new steel production methods with Daniel McCallum management theories of systematically managing large organizations such as railroads. (American Experience, 1999) Transportation Railroads were the first big business in the United States. Daniel McCallum developed a means to organize and manage this early mass
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Dementia Introduction Dementia is a progressive brain dysfunction (in Latin dementia means irrationality), which results in a restriction of daily activities and in most cases leads in long term need for care. Many diseases can result in dementia, the most common, Alzheimers disease (Dementia. com, 2007). Description of Dementia Ã¢â¬Å"Dementia describes a group of symptoms that are caused by changes in brain function. Dementia symptoms may include asking the same questions repeatedly; becoming lost in familiar places; being unable to follow directions; getting disoriented about time, people, and places; and neglecting personal safety, hygiene, and nutrition. People with dementia lose their abilities at different rates. Dementia is caused by many conditions. Some conditions that cause dementia can be reversed, and others cannotÃ¢â¬ (PsychCentral, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"The two most common forms of dementia in older people are AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and multi-infarct dementia (sometimes called vascular dementia). These types of dementia are irreversible, which means they cannot be curedÃ¢â¬ (PsychCentral, 2007). We will write a custom essay sample on Dementia or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬Å"Reversible conditions with symptoms of dementia can be caused by a high fever, dehydration, vitamin deficiency and poor nutrition, bad reactions to medicines, problems with the thyroid gland, or a minor head injury. Medical conditions like these can be serious and should be treated by a doctor as soon as possibleÃ¢â¬ (PsychCentral, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes older people have emotional problems that can be mistaken for dementia. Feeling sad, lonely, worried, or bored may be more common for older people facing retirement or coping with the death of a spouse, relative, or friend. Adapting to these changes leaves some people feeling confused or forgetful. Emotional problems can be eased by supportive friends and family, or by professional help from a doctor or counselorÃ¢â¬ (PsychCentral, 2007). Symptoms of Dementia Ã¢â¬Å"The most recent memories are lost sooner than older ones, and new memories, perhaps of something that happened minutes earlier, are difficult to retainÃ¢â¬ (PsychCentral, 2007). For example, a woman may ask her husband when they are scheduled to visit their children. Saturday, he might reply, minutes later, she may ask the same identical question. In the early stages of the dementia, however, she probably will have no difficulty identifying photos of the children, or even of casual friends, taken 30 years earlier. Ã¢â¬Å"In certain forms of dementia, behavioral changes (such as increased aggressiveness), may be prominentÃ¢â¬ (Healthscout. com, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"As the disease progresses, patients lose the ability to function independently and become increasingly disoriented to time and place. Wandering may become a significant problemÃ¢â¬ (Healthscout, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Patients become unable to care for themselves and grooming and dressing standards deteriorate rapidly. Patients often dress inappropriately for the season and confuse underwear with outer garmentsÃ¢â¬ (Healthscout. com, 2007). One of the precursors to dementia is strokes. Many strokes occur in individuals who are overweight and may suffer from diseases such as diabetes. According to (Adams, 2004), Ã¢â¬Å"future generations will no doubt look back on modern America and wonder how we could eat ourselves and drug ourselves into such a sad state of mental and physical healthÃ¢â¬
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Integrative Core Entrepreneurship Assignment Paper Entrepreneurship is an important factor in many businesses today. Entrepreneurship is The innovatory process involved in the creation of an economic enterprise based on a new product or service which differs significantly from products or services in the way its production is organized, or in its marketing. (Curran and Burrows 1986, p. 269, in Morrison 1998, p. 1/2) While the entrepreneur is a person who attempts to profit by risk and initiative (Oxford English Dictionary)I am often asked what it is to be an entrepreneur and there is no simple answer. It is clear that successful entrepreneurs are vital for a healthy, vibrant and competitive economy. If you look around you, most of the largest companies have their foundations in one or two individuals who have the determination to turn a vision into reality (Richard Branson, in Anderson 1995 p. 3, in Morrison 1998, p. 4). And today, there are many entrepreneurs do exist, for example, Peter Mann and David Lane. Peter Mann, who graduated from Strathclyde University and now, he is the Managing Director of Its Not Rocket Science. Com while he describes the company as a content entertainment portal with an e-commerce backbone Peter Mann starts a business instead of working for someone else. It is because he said that he had the right people to do with it and he could not have done this on his own. He would like to communicate with others and hear what people think. He enjoys the team leadership rather than being authorative as he treats his people as the most important resource in his company. However, Peter Mann likes to do things on his own way sometimes as he said that he would rather make the rule instead of being told what to do. We will write a custom essay sample on Integrative Core Entrepreneurship Assignment specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Integrative Core Entrepreneurship Assignment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Integrative Core Entrepreneurship Assignment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer When Peter Mann describes the way of his business runs, he said that as they are not a huge company in terms of numbers, so everybody has an input into minor decision-making. It is a good decision-making approach to me as I think that everyone can contribute to the company. Peter Mann is also a good leader in the company in my opinion as I can see it in his sales and marketing strategy, which is Be positive to everybody about your company and so just make sure everyone knows what youre doing Thats marketing, thats word of mouth. His approach to negotiation is good as well because his company did not have enough money to employ people and to reach major clients, so they went out and managed to get venture capital. And it is also important to have a good negotiation skill if they want to reach the major clients successfully. However, the making-decision process of comparing and evaluating alternatives does not appears in Peter Manns approach as he said that When I think we started to get just a little bit conceited about how we picked what we did. Basically, we had an idea and we went for it; we hired contractors, we signed contracts to get the work done, and then afterwards did the research on it and found that wed made some fundamental miscalculations about the value of this product and the competitive environment of the product. That was a waste of a serious amount of cash. In this aspect, I suggest that using the decision-making process- doing the full research and then compare and evaluate with others will be improved this problem. Money is one of Peters aims but he said that it is not his main aim. Another entrepreneur who I am going to introduce is David Lane. Sir David Lane graduated at University College, London and he carried out Post Doctoral Research at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. He also set up his own laboratory at Imperial College, London, moved to the ICRF laboratories at Clare Hall before moving to Dundee to help establish the CRC laboratories there. He is co-author of the successful guidebook, Antibodies. Professor Sir David Lane is the Director of the Cancer Research Campaigns Cell Transformation Research Group at the University of Dundee. He is also the Founder and Chief Scientific Officer at Cyclacel, a company developing drugs for treatment of Cancer. Sir David is well known for his speaking to non-specialist groups and for his clarifying reviews. He was the second most highly cited Medical Scientist in the UK in the last decade and was knighted in this years honours list. Sir David Lane starts up his because he felt he wasnt able to achieve the objectives he wanted with the existing organisations he had worked, by starting his own company, he could able to bring intense focus to what he wanted to achieve and to shepherd those things through and make them happen. When Sir David Lane describes the way of his company runs, he said that it was run in a pretty strictly organised way that is, keeping track of how money spent and how they are convincing their shareholders that they are doing the right thing. They are also tracking back every piece of the work, so it creates a very different environment, a very different culture. But he said that he find that many people find it very satisfying because their work as a team is so much recognised as a team. Sir David Lane also describes himself as a friendly sort of person and he like people, he like to inspire people and he like to get people to achieve.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
iIHeard the owl called my name essays Essay topic: Comparing the ways different white character relate to the Indians community in King Come. The story takes place in King Come village, in the Pacific Northwest, where a minister named Mark Brian is leading a mission to learn the Indian ways and tradition and languages. King Come village is a tribe of Indians known as the Kwakiutl natives. How Mark Brian discovers the ultimate truths of life and love, courage and dignity, among the Indians of the Northwest, and other white men survive in King Come. First of all, the chapter two, the RCMP officer was not happy because the little boy who named Weesa-bedoÃ ¡s body has been moved from its original place. And the Indians have no permission to move the little boy who died on the water. But the Indians were not sure he was dead, they thought they could revive him. The next thing was the RCMP officer was young, and he took a long time to arrived, it was obviously why he has been long in coming. He also brought a girl and didnÃ ¡t take this case seriously. Through all the reasons, show that he was curtness to obey the Indians, he came up late to the village and brought his girlfriend beside him for work. In chapter three, there is a white teacher who came to King Come for his second year in the village. He had racism on the Indians and the Indians did not like him too. He didnÃ ¡t even know Mark Brian had arrived, he didnÃ ¡t even Mark was coming; because his relationship with the Indians were very worse that the Indians didnÃ ¡t tell him about MarkÃ ¡s coming. It also shown on when he returned from his summer holidays, a seaplane had deposited him at flood tide under the alders on the far side of the river, and he had stood there in rain and yelling loudly to the T.P in an impolite way. And the teacher came to the village solely for the isolation pay which would permit him a year in Greece studying the civilization he adored. Through all those events it shown that the teacherÃ ¡s ...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Latinos in United States Essays Latinos in United States Essay Latinos in United States Essay Universidad de Puerto Rico Culturas Latinas en E. IJ. In the early 1800s, Spains colonies in America were much richer and bigger in territory than the U. S. By the mid-1800s, most of Spains colonies broke into much smaller separate countries and lost power, while the U. S. gained power and territory (Harvest Empire, Chapter 2, page 27). According to Gonzalez, some often describe the American model, in contrast to the ill-suited Spanish model, as one that was fundamentally suited for power and expansion. However, as Gonzalez argues in the chapter, his views are not particularly in accord with the general consensus because hese views ignore the discordant and unequal relationship that emerged between the US and Latin America from the first days of independence. (Page 27). The United States expansion pattern is quite simply explained by the countrys desire for growth, which came from a place feeling threatened by the possibility of Latin American territories growing, and at one point becoming a credible threat to U. S. power. However, given the times, as Gonzalez explains, one of the main reasons the U. S. felt it could not allow for these areas of Latin America to become ndependent (even if their governments were modeled after the American revolution) was because they were headed towards eradicating slavery. As part of the expansion pattern, North-American merchants and traders supported weak Latin-American leaders only to overthrow them and later annex these territories. Hostile behavior from the U. S. toward Latin Americans as they fought towards their independence was a shock to Latin American leaders since their strategies for independence were based on the American Revolution, and because of the support various Latin Americans gave to the U. S. during said war. Page 29) However the truth behind this disloyal behavior from the United States was once again based on the countrys interest in some of these Spanish occupied territories. During this North-American expansion pattern one the most affected countries in terms of loss of territory was Mexico; as most Mexicans began to be forced out of the lands that were known to them since their births. As they conquered lands, Native Americans were pushed farther west, they were herded onto reservations, and several million Mexicans, Cubans, Filipinos, and Puerto Ricans, were placed under U. S. sovereignty. page 30) As part of their expansion, most of the commerce that began to form in these newly conquered lands were Anglo owned businesses. So, even though business was booming, the ones benefiting from these profits werent the natives. Many who were once considered in high regard in their land now were seen and treated as second class citizens. One prime example of how Anglos where taking over is Texas; most of the Anglos who immigrated to Texas were mostly drawn to this area because of how inexpensive land was to purchase. Even though the Anglos were able to annex so many lands, territories, etc. it is not o be said that they did so without a fght. One of the most important and famous led by General Santa Anna fought against (and won) the newly arrived Texans and Tejanos for what he believed to be Mexican land. All of this can be and is correlated to the migration of Puerto Ricans in 1898 and Mexican migrations after 1900. As Carmen Whalen states, and as would any basic Puerto Rican history class will teach you, Puerto Rico has been subjected to colonization more than once; first by the Spanish and later (and currently) by the United States. Before 1898 Puerto Rican migration was infrequent, as only local merchants, more pecifically those who were in the tobacco business, would travel to the United States to sell their products. Of course many of those who did migrate to the United States were pursuing a safe haven as they were seeking independence from Spanish rule. (Colonialism Before and After 1898, page 4) Many of the cities that Puerto Ricans were settling into before 1898 would not have a significant Puerto Rican or even Latin population until much later. Of the merchants that arrived to the United States, most were involved with the sugar trade. Sixty percent (60%) of the sugar that was made in Puerto Rico was exported to the U. S. ; and those who would ship the sugar would settle in the ports of Philadelphia. Those Puerto Rican merchants who worked in tobacco/cigar making and those who were political exiles would have more concentrated communities. (page 5) They were considered prominent members of the community because of their political activism towards the Independence of Spanish rule (the majority of these would settle in New York). In 1898, during the Spanish-Cuban-American war, it became obvious that the United States wanted to acquire Puerto Rico. As mentioned before, the United States ad expanded from coast to coast and a territory in the Caribbean presented an extreme advantage as it would provide for a perfect naval base. Whalen provides us with many quotations from an article of The New York Times in which the author, Amos Fiske, comes to the general conclusion that it would be in the best interest of Puerto Ricans to become a part of the United State because Puerto Rico could not be self-governed. As many Latin Americans felt with the annexation of their territories, Puerto Ricans in many ways could feel a sense of betrayal from the U. S. , as their relationship before this was amicable and supportive when P. R. sought independence from Spain. In 1898 after signing the Treaty of Paris Puerto Rico officially became a territory of the United States. As per the opinion of Fiske, Puerto Rico would not elect the islands leaders, they would be appointed. The government placed would be highly military based and no autonomy would be given to Puerto Ricans. Concurrently, not everyone in the United States felt that these proceedings were ethical, as many democrats argued that it went against the rights of the locals; especially when The Foraker Act severely limit[ed] civilian involvement in their own overnment and would involve taxation without representation, all of which went against the democratic philosophies the U. S. was built on. (page 6) After Puerto Rico became a part of the U. S. in 1901 its economy became worse and worse. Instead of seeing it as a problem, because of the limitations placed on P. R. by the Foraker Act, the blame was placed on over-population. The then placed governor, the economic crisis. Of course, Allen wasnt the only governor who promoted this idea. The people of P. R. were told that if they migrated to the U. S. , better Jobs and salaries would be promised. As a result the first large migration of Puerto Ricans occurred, in 1901 that would be sent to Hawaii another U. S. territory. U. S. owned corporations recruited 5,000 Puerto Rican workers (page 7). As we can see the migration of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans to and within the United States were largely based on them being forced out of their native lands. They no longer felt at home in their lands, and because of the promise of better opportunities in other regions. Many of these reasons is why to this day the migration of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans to the U. S. happens in such great figures.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility Concept - Assignment Example Currently, it has become a focus for many companies due to its continuing commitment to help businesses contribute to economic development by being responsible to their respective stakeholders (Hancock, 2005, 12). The greater part of the CSR has helped manage or improve environmental and social impacts of the company. The increased use of CSR has encouraged the corporate sector to be more environmentally and socially responsible particularly at a time when the crisis has damaged consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s level of trust in the operations of the company. This coupled with the rise in transparency and social media has facilitated companies to begin taking CSR more seriously in order to help reduce their environmental impacts (Louche et al, 2010, 209). Corporate social responsibility has helped enterprises to contribute to the highly competitive social market economy and sustainable development. Responsible business conduct has helped many private sector operators to provide public services. For instance, they have provided employment opportunities, social amenities as well as sustainable, smart and inclusive growth (Mullerat & Brennan, 2011, 29).Ã CSR has facilitated engagement with both external and internal stakeholders thus enabling businesses to take advantage of societal fast-changing expectations as well as operating conditions. The enterprises have acted as drivers for the emergence of other markets and the development of real opportunities for growth. Companies normally commit responsible investment in various sectors of the economy to enhance the social welfare of their stakeholders. This results in economic growth thus improving the living standards of the stakeholders (Mullerat & Brennan, 2011, 89). Corporate social responsibility planning has come to the forefront for major companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ future growth opportunities. Their increased investment in CSR initiatives, for instance, environmental initiative, has been very attractive in inducing economic stimulus of a country while at the sameÃ time achieving solid CRS goals.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Marketing communications presentation of apple - Essay Example Organizations that capitalize on customers' active participation in organizational activities can gain competitive advantage through greater sales volume, enhanced operating efficiencies, positive word-of-mouth publicity, reduced marketing expenses, and enhanced customer loyalty (Lovelock & Young, 1979; Reichheld & Sasser, 1990). Channel communications works in a two-way system wherein information transfers to the user and bounces all the way back to the producer (Goldberg & McCalley, 1992). In other words, marketing communications works like a feedback system, which allows company producers to relay information to the customers. In response to the provided information, consumers give certain reactions or behaviors. In this light, the electronic transformation of the services offered by Apple agency will result to better and more efficient and effective customer service system to the clientele. Moreover, the functionality of the online portal for the marketing and advertising needs of the agency will most possibly result to increase customer reach, satisfaction level and return of investment.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Publix Essay October sixth my birthday. Just turning sixteen years old. I finally got a car, a license, and a bunch of friends to tote around. The only probably being, I didnt have a job. Now that I was legal to work in the United States, I couldnt wait to finally get a job and have my own money. I knew that I would have to get one once I turned 16. My parents were always super strict on being independent and developing work experience, so I started applying places. The first thing that set me up for failure was the time of the year I was applying. Its a fact that late fall, and winter time is the worst time to apply for a job, because companies do not want to take on new people right as the busy time is rolling in. Another thing is my standards on where I would apply, and where I would not. And Publix grocery store was number one on that list. I had such a bad idea in my brain about Publix. I thought that it was such a low job, that only people who were desperate worked as baggers there. After putting in more than fifty applications and only getting one call back, I finally broke down and applied to Publix. Take in mind, this was about a month and half after I turned sixteen; so I was paying for gas in change I found in couch cushions, and money I made from doing chores. About January 4th, after I forgot I even put in an application, I got a call while I was working out at Planet Fitness, the call was from Ramona Novak, the administrative coordinator at the Publix on the island. She called to ask if I was still interested in coming in for an interview. I said yes, and she told me to come in that Friday. I got off the phone, and I told my friends, Cambria and Chloe who I had just talked to, and told them I had an interview at Publix but I didnt think I was going to go because I didnt want to bag groceries for a living. They talked me into going, and that I didnt have anything to lose. Come that Friday, I was a nervous wreck. And I never get nervous. I love getting in front of crowds, talking in front of people, and just being myself all the time. But people who have authority over me and who can pretty much make or break a situtation make me entirely too nervous. I left school early that Friday, because I didnt want to start my future Publix career late to my interview. I remember exactly what I wore, and let me just say it was not interview appropriate I had on jeans, worn out brown winter boots, a black cardigan, and a cheetah scarf. Sounds okay for a high school student, but definitely not for an interview, I pretty much set myself up for failure. I arrived to the store ten minutes early, because my dad always told me if your not five minutes early, then you are late. Punctuality is always a good thing. I waited at customer service, not having any idea who to talk to, or what to do. They finally noticed me awkwardly standing there and asked me if I needed help. I told them I had an interview, and they took my upstairs to wait. I sat down in the break room, nervously awaiting my fate. I felt like my heart was going to beat out of my chest. The door finally swung open, and Ramona told me to come into the office. It was time for my interview. I walked in, and shook hands with the one and only, Mr.Ã Dave Scott. He asked me basic questions, then we got into school stuff, work experience, why I wanted this job, and I felt like I was taking a quiz in chemistry class, not knowing any of the right answers. Mr. Scott told me that he had a report card he would have to fill out whenever I left which made me even more nervous. The interview lasted probably ten minutes tops. I thanked him for his time, and he told me he would look over it and hopefully give me a call. I walked out of his office, thinking Id never enter this building again. I knew I had blown it. He didnt like me, he thought I was too inexperienced, I wouldnt fit in here, I answered the questions all wrong. All I could think about is where I would be applying to next. A couple days later, I got a phone call from an unknown number, I answered it out of curiosity and it was Ramona telling me that I got the job. I was ecstatic. I would never have to lift another couch cushion for change again. She told me I had to come in for a drug test, and to sign some papers. I came in a few days later and I took the drug test. Never have I touched a drug in my life, but I was so nervous that somehow, someway a drug got into my system and the test would come out positive and I would never get this job. But it didnt, and she called me and scheduled my days to come in for training. This day she also gave me my uniform. I was so excited to go back home and try it on and wear my new name tag. Training was a very unique experience. Pretty much it was fifteen future Publix employees from different stores in one tiny room learning about the history of Publix, slip prevention, till reports, and how to avoid damages. I remember exactly who I was sitting next to, because those people work at my store now. The one guy was like 27, reeked of cigarettes, and fell asleep each day of training, he was definitely a strange one. Its pretty ironic how were really good friends now. And the girl I went to school with, but I didnt know her too well, so it was a little awkward. I was the loudest person in training though, everyone probably hated me. I answered all the questions, and vollunteered for each activity. I was just so excited. January 21st: my first real day of work. I remember this day like it was yesterday. I came in with my apron still having the fold marks on it, my hair was in a bun on top of my head, and I had silver glitter on as eye shadow. I was ecstatic to be a front service clerk, bag peoples groceries, put them in their car, all for minimum wage. So, I clocked in and I met my customer service team leader, Brandi Griffin. Brandi helped me so much my first day, I have her to thank for making me want to come back for my second. She had another front service clerk (or as I like to call them, baggers) train me. Now this was probably the most awkward situation of my life. Bagging is a pretty simple task, bread and eggs go to together, cans on the bottom, and the produce in one bag, and I think I understood that in training. So Ben just kind of stood there watching me while Brandi was behind me giving me thumbs up and smiling from ear to ear. I finally was on my own. And then Brandi told me to go get carts. The first time I ever did this was terrible. I had no idea how to turn or push these massive things, and I ended up hitting an elderly customer on my very first day. I was mortified. Come that night, I was closing. Which meant I had to do floor care, and since I am a minor, I had to mop. The first time I ever mopped, I had blisters on my hands for a week. Come eleven o clock that night, I had never been more excited to leave anywhere in my life. I came home, took, a shower, and passed out on my bed. After a couple of months of getting used to things, drowning out the constant beep, beep of the registers, getting in the flow, and meeting my coworkers, my assitant customer service manager, Kayce Jenkins told me, Amanda were cross training you tonight. Those six words had never sounded so good together in my life. Cross training meant, I would be a cashier, along with being a bagger. Not at the same time though. The first time I was ever on a register, I messed up so bad. Which is to be expected because I was so nervous again. I really enjoyed cashiering though, I felt pretty confident by the end of the night. I hate to toot my own horn, but now that Ive been a cashier for a while, Im pretty fast, and I know the majority of the fruit PLU numbers. Its always really fun when a customer comes in with a lot of coupons, its like a game. How much lower can my bill get?! At Publix, I feel like were one big family. I call Kayce mom, and she calls me cupcake. Remember Mr. Dave Scott? Mr. Intimidating? He called me cupcake the other day shocked is an understatement. We do everything together and not just cause were forced to work and get along. But I remember when we vollunteered for Habitat for Humanity together. A team that works together, builds houses together. Lets just say me and my coworkers got really personal that day, we learned a lot about eachother. They finally learned I wasnt always a positive person after working in the sun for a good six hours. I also had to close and do floors that night so, I technically worked a 16 hour day. Working as a minor definitely has its advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is that during the school year, on school nights I can never stay past 10:15, so that means I never have to do floors Sunday through Thursday. Something else is that at every single Publix, there is this thing we do called beverage checks. It is pretty much when two Publix assosicates, one that is under 18, and one that is under 21, goes to another Publix store dressed in regular clothes not in our uniforms, and tries to buy tobacco, lottery, and alcohol. Since I am under 18, Im always responsible for the tobacco and the lottery tickets. Its very nerve wracking and you feel really bad if you do trick the person into selling it to you. But its also very fun because its like a mini field trip from work, that you get paid for, and you get to practice your acting skills and see how old some people think you are. I have never actually had someone sell the illegal items to me before though, so thats a good thing. Some disadvantages that come with being a minor at Publix is that we cannot opperate the motor carts, that some disabled or elderly customers use. So if Im out doing carts, and I see one of the motor ones, Im not aloud to touch it. Also Im not aloud to opperate the scrub machines, when I do floors. So every single time I do them, I have to mop. And lastly, there are things called minor violations, and this pretty much means that if I work for more than three hours at a time, without a break, Publix will get a $1,000 dollar fine for each minute Im over three hours. So whoever is running the front, always reminds me of my break. This is can be an advantage or a disadvantage. Because 95% of the time, I do know when my break is, Im responsible enough to check it, and they always remind the minors fifty times when their breaks are which can get annoying. But Im thankful for it because that 5% of that time that I dont know when my break is, I know that theyre there to tell me it. It probably sounds like I hate my job after telling you the disadvantages, but the advantages, the people, and my managers definitely outweigh the disadvantages every time. And I truly love my job. One of the things that comes with working for a big corporation is promotions, retirements, and letting people go. This can be a very heart breaking process that I have experineced numorous times. The first time I got a taste of this was a couple months after I started working there, I became close with a customer service associate, Brandee (a different Brandi than the first one. ) We always had our breaks together, and she was all around such a sweet and amazing person and Im so thankful to have met her and have her in my life. The day she told me that she was getting a promotion, I was so ecstatic for her, but then she told me that shed have to be transferring and my heart broke in half. Another example is Brandi, our customer service team leader. She told me that she got a promotion to be an assitant customer service manager at another store. After a couple rounds of this I finally realized, change is inevitable. People change, work changes, positions change, you just have to accept it and move on. Just keep those people in your heart, and visit them often. But one change was harder to accept than the rest. And I think its ironic that Im writing my essay on this, and this just happened at work. Dave Scott? Remember him? Well August 31st, 2012 was his last day as a bagger, a cashier, an FEC, a deli clerk, and most importantly a Publix store manager. I believe Dave Scott was the foundation of our store. He took pride in his employees and his customers. And really believed in the open door policy, he was always available to talk to, no matter the situation. Although this is my first job, I know for a fact Mr. Scott will be the best boss I will ever have. He wasnt just a boss to me, I looked up to him, he was like a second father, and a truely great friend. I found out about his retirement on August 30th. I came into work about ten minutes early, to put my stuff down, and to talk to people. I noticed there was a circle of managers at the door when I walked in so I asked Katelyn what was going on. She said to me, Mr. Scott is retiring. Tomorrow is his last day. After hearing those words it felt like my mind went blank. I couldnt believe cupcake would be gone, tomorrow. I started freaking out, not knowing what to say, figuring out the right way to say good bye, but nothing was coming to me. So I walked over to the time clock to wait for 5:30 to punch in. I turned and looked in the direction of the huddle of my mangers and Mr. Scott caught my eye and started walking towards me. Come her, cupcake! , he said with his arms wide open for a hug. Keep in mind I dont think Ive ever seen Dave Scott hug anybody in my life, so I was pretty shocked. We hugged and I was tearing up, I didnt even know what to say. He said hed miss me, and I told him I would miss him so much, and I asked him what he planned on doing now. He said he was going to open some new genius company, and I told him I would gladly work for him there. After all, hes the one who gave me the job I hold dear to now. Obviously he knows where people belong. I believe in fate and karma. That everything happens for a reason and positive thinking. For some reason, that one company who didnt call me back for an interview wasnt supposed to. I was supposed to scrounge for change for those first three months, to fall into place of where I am now. Store 336 has my heart. I couldnt imagine working anywhere else because I know Id be upset. I was always the person to say Do what you love for a living, that way it never feels like a job. I dont want to stay at Publix for the rest of my life, but I do know I will be working my way up into the system, and who knows, maybe one day Ill be my own version of Mr. Scott. I hope to make an impact on some of my coworkers lives, just like they have on my own. People always ask me if I really do like my job, it may come off as misleading because Publix grocery store doesnt seem like a fun place to work to others, but Im so thankful to have the job I do, and to truely enjoy it.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Search for Identity in Joy Luck Club Ã Ã Ã Each person reaches a point in their life when they begin to search for their own, unique identity. In her novel, Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan follows Jing Mei on her search for her Chinese identity Ã¢â¬â an identity long neglected. Ã Four Chinese mothers have migrated to America. Each hope for their daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s success and pray that they will not experience the hardships faced in China. One mother, Suyuan, imparts her knowledge on her daughter through stories. The American culture influences her daughter, Jing Mei, to such a degree that it is hard for Jing Mei to understand her mother's culture and life lessons. Yet it is not until Jing Mei realizes that the key to understanding who her mother was and who she is lies in understanding her mother's life. Ã Jing Mei spends her American life trying to pull away from her Chinese heritage, and therefore also ends up pulling away from her mother. Jing Mei does not understand the culture and does not feel it is necessary to her life. When she grows up it is not "fashionable" to be called by your Chinese name (Tan 26). She doesn't use, understand, or remember the Chinese expressions her mother did, claiming she "can never remember things [she] didn't understand in the first place" (Tan 6). Jing Mei "begs" her mother "to buy [her] a transistor radio", but her mother refuses when she remembers something from her past, asking her daughter "Why do you think you are missing something you never had?" (Tan 13) Instead of viewing the situation from her mother's Chinese-influenced side, Jing Mei takes the juvenile American approach and "sulks in silence for an hour" (Tan 13). By ignoring her mom and her mom's advice, Jing Mei is also ignoring... ...Jing Mei realizes the part of her that is Chinese is her family. She must embrace the memory of her dead mother to grasp that part of her identity. Ã Works Cited and Consulted: Gates, David. Critical Extract. Asian-American Women Writers. Ed. Harold Bloom. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1997. 83-4. Heung, Marina. "Daughter-Text/Mother-Text: Matrilineage in Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club." Feminist Studies (Fall 1993): 597-616. Huntley, E. D. Amy Tan: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood P, 1998. Shear, Walter. "Generational differences and the diaspora in The Joy Luck Club." Women Writers. 34.3 (Spring 1993): 193 Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Vintage Contemporaries. New York: A Division of Random House, Inc., 1991.. Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia. Reading Asian American Literature: From Necessity to Extravagance. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
In watching the film, Merchants of Cool, which was aired in 2001, it is quite concerning how our society is turning to consuming as a means of achieving a satisfying standard of living. The film brought to light how large media companies, especially conglomerates that own all production and distribution of media from start to finish, study and sell to teen youths because of their large quantity of Ã¢â¬Å"guilt moneyÃ¢â¬ , disposable income giving to youth by parents to keep them happy. They have become the most marketed group, which in turn turns the youth into adults that continue to seek happiness in consuming. The fear in this standard of living is that we start losing touch with our true values, and instead of looking towards family, community, ethnicity and religion as the creator of cultural forms, we are now being oriented as a society by the world of commodities. And with the advancement of technology, so has marketing research advanced, where we are being specifically being catered to with ads to continue this cycle of finding meaning and happiness through the purchase of goods and services. Advertisers know that they cannot sell meaning and happiness, but they can illicit those feelings by advertising visions of what a Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ should be through the selling of products, known as **image-based advertising**. Sut JhallyÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture, explains how image-based advertising has been so integrated into our way of thought and consumption that it is difficult to pinpoint when our most cherished values became tied into consumer culture (p 201). Advertisements have taken up so much of our public space and discourse, and now even our private with the advancement of technology, that we are constantly being shown what the vision of happiness is, and what we must buy to achieve a satisfying standard of living. Juliet SchorÃ¢â¬â¢s article, The New Politics of Consumption: Why Americans Want So Much More Than They Need, breaks down the idea that Americans live in a constant state of **dis-ease**: worrying about the preoccupation with getting and spending (p 205). Not only is this disconcerting because it takes away from living in the moment, but it pushes us to live beyond our means. We arenÃ¢â¬â¢t happy because we do not emulate what we see as the Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ because of the growing aspirational gap because of upscale emulation. We are never at ease where we stand economically and socially, and feel the pressures to keep up. And although this is a problem with the upper and middle class, it is a more dangerous problem for the lower class. The trickle effect of status symbol goods, such as state of the art phones, flat screen televisions, etc. , sets up those with limited resources and aspirations of living the Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ by buying those goods for continual financial failure through consumption of expensive goods that is beyond their means. The film, The Merchants of Cool, aired in 2001, and the way that companies acquired information from the consumer was with Ã¢â¬Å"cool huntersÃ¢â¬ , marketing researchers who would research and interview to see what trends could be capitalized on. The analyzing was apparent, as opposed to now where consumers are being researched and targeted in ways that are more subtle, and now advertisers have the tools to more conspicuously sell us the Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ . On the radio interview Ã¢â¬Å"How Companies are Ã¢â¬ËDefining Your WorthÃ¢â¬â¢ OnlineÃ¢â¬ , Joseph Turrow discussed how marketers donÃ¢â¬â¢t even have to do much to gather information from us, they can now track our online movements using digital tracking like cookies. This information is gathered and sold to advertisers by data marketers, unbeknownst to us. Market research has evolved so much because of the growing digital world we live in. And advertisers are now able to subtly sell to us in a personally targeted way, instead of the blatant in your face banner ads that we would automatically close without even reading them. Although this is perfectly legal, the downfall falls on the consumer that is being researched and targeted. Our sense of consumption is insatiable when we are constantly being targeted, we lose a sense of privacy when we are constantly being watched, and, as Joseph Turrow also discussed, and we can also be targets of **digital social discrimination**. Digital social discrimination, which is the idea that companies can take digital information and make inferences of what kind of ads are suitable for the individual consumer, they target only certain ads, discounts, and such (2012). Advertisers then think of that individual only in a certain way, and may even target ads that may have negative connotations, such as getting out of debt ads, weight loss, and such. Consumers are being categorized, and because of the categories they are being targeted by certain ads, which perhaps sell a good that is not appropriate, and denied others because of assumptions being made by the online information gathered on that individual. This is why it is important to have some sort of regulatory system overseeing the structure and ownership of media. U. S. government plays only a small role in determining who owns the media, and only regulates it minimally, and the power of the U. S. media that uses the market research to produce products reaches us not just here in the United States, but also has a global impact. Because of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ **cultural imperialism**, where American styles in fashion and food, as well as media far, dominate the global market, our versions of the Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ are influenced on parts of the world, as discussed in Richard CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Media Economics and the Global MarketplaceÃ¢â¬ , (p 411). Our Ã¢â¬Ëcultural dumpingÃ¢â¬â¢ of exporting U. S. media can influence other countries societal value systems, development of original local products, and abandon their own rituals to adopt American tastes. In reality, the power behind these large media researchers, marketers, producers, and distributors, who are often the owned by the same company, is astounding and influences not only our lives as an individual, but also has the potential to influence on a global level. They are able to gather information about individuals, sell it, and categorize as they see fit, leaving us with no sense of privacy, with the goal of selling us as many goods and services as possible until we reach the unattainable Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ , which is a vision that they have carefully created. Until we, as consumers, are more aware of how much consumption has taken over our sense of self-worth and satisfaction and how little privacy we have in the new digital age, we will keep trying to buy the Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ . ?
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the information strategy of the BBC. Having reviewed the various modes of enquiry, we have decided that the unbounded mode is the most appropriate in this instance. Using this, we have investigated the BBCsÃ¢â¬â¢ IS strategy, examining the external factors that may have an affect upon its planning and design. In addition we have reviewed other issues pertinent to the BBC to determine the possible negative of these might have on the strategy. Finally we have looked at the next five years to evaluate the relevance that significant advances over that period might have on the BBC IS strategy. Enquiry system Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In compiling this report we need first to decide what method we are going to plan our research upon. There are five basic enquiry modes ranging from the simple to the complex and innovative. Enquiry Modes 1) Inductive-Consensual Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As the words suggest this mode of enquiry relies upon one reaching a single conclusion by using a restricted range of interpretations, for example from previous researches into the subject matter. The result is influenced by the general consent of these opinions. For example if one asked the question Ã¢â¬Å"Is public service broadcasting superior to commercial,Ã¢â¬ and this was only put to BBC employees, the consensus is likely to answer affirmatively. 2) Analytic-deductive Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This mode approaches the problem or enquiry from a different aspect. In this case the problem is broken down into its component parts. Each one of these parts is then analysed and tested for logic. Once this process is complete a formula is used to build the results from the analysis of those parts into a single solution that addresses the problem. 3) Dialectic Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the more complex of the enquiry modes, the dialectic mode is based upon conflict or different viewpoints. It does not question the data, simply the views that are expressed about it, working on the basis that by discussion of the variance a logical conclusion will be reached. A relevant argument for this mode would be the discussion about whether the BBC should be allowed to sell advertising space in the same way that the commercial media does. 4) Multiple reality Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Multiple reality recognizes that people will approach problems from a predetermined viewpoint, based upon their own experience and training. For example an Accountant will look at the commissioning of a new revolutionary BBC sit-com from a different angle of the program planner. This process therefore relies upon the problem being addressed from a number of viewpoints, which will essentially come up with a range of conclusions. 5) Unbounded systems thinking Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This modes works on the basis that, in any given situation, all modes of enquiry are automatically brought to bear, and therefore cannot be separated. Thus, when addressing a problem every viewpoint and conclusion needs to be taken into account. Similarities and differences Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã All of the modes described above have similarities. All five rely upon the fact that there is a situation to be addressed in the first place. Additionally the point of the exploration, review and analysis of this problem, for all of the modes is to a) gain knowledge and b) reach a conclusion based on that knowledge, or a solution to the hypothesis or problem posed. Modes 1 and 2 above are similar to the extent that they both have a singular approach to the subject matter, relying upon one viewpoint (or consensus) being the input and the result. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With modes 3 and 4 the similarities are that both look for a range of viewpoints from which to approach a subject and neither attempt or profess to reach a singular conclusion, preferring instead to provide multiple conclusions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mode 5, in theory, displays the most similarity to all of the others. This is simply because it works on the premises that, in the real world, none of the enquiry systems and modes described can operate independently. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Equally there are some major differentials between these systems. The key difference is in their approach to a given situation. Mode one differs from the others in that it relies upon a consensus of opinion from a limited range of sources and seeks a single conclusion. Mode two differs from three to five for the same reason, but it also differs from one in the it analyses the component parts of the problem, rather than relying solely on interpretation. Mode three and four differ from each other in that they treat the conclusion in a different manner, three allowing differing conclusions to be presented, and four, seeking argument between different conclusions. Mode fives similarity is also its difference to the others, namely that it does not limit itself to a particular enquiry mode, instead using all formats. Strengths and weaknesses Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Inherent in all enquiry modes are strengths and weaknesses, which need to be recognised. Inductive-Consensual. The strengths of this mode rest in the fact that it is focused in one direction, making it simple to use and relatively quick to apply to a given problem. Its weaknesses lie in the limitation of approach and its reliance upon consensus of opinion. There is no attempt to check the validity of core data. Using the BBC example used in the mode description, there is no guarantee that the consensus of agreement is based on a genuine or, because they are employees of the BBC, biased and inaccurate opinion. Analytic-deductive. In this instance the strength comes from the fact that the component parts have been analysed before arriving at a conclusion. It bases that conclusion on logic. Its weakness comes from the fact that, like mode 1, it relies heavily upon a single source of operator to address the problem or situation. Both modes 1 and two have a strength that is also a weakness. This relates to the fact that both seek to arrive at a single conclusion. This is strength when given a task that asks for a definitive solution and the receiver does not want to input into this, but a weakness when asked for an opinion or range of solution. Ã Dialectic. The major strength in this mode is that it does allow for differing viewpoints to address a situation, thus relating itself more closely with a real world scenario. Similarly, the fact that it does result in a range of conclusions, and allow these to compete against each other to reach a conclusion is good when seeking a final unified approach. It means that all the options have an opportunity to be considered and discussed. The argumentative aspect can be strength insofar as such an approach can often lead to a tempering of divergent views. Weakness may Multiple reality. Like Dialectic, the multiple approaches have the strength of numerous viewpoints. In this case though, it presents all of the options. This allows the receiver to consider the options from their own particular viewpoint, before they make the final decision. Unbounded systems. The strength of this system is in its unlimited approach to a subject. Using this method ensures that it covers all possible aspects, resulting in a wide range of probable solutions. Its weakness rests in the fact that it is cumbersome and, if used as a tool for a conclusive result, could not facilitate this. In addition it would be a time consuming project. For the purpose of this study we will be using the multiple reality mode. Information Systems strategy Ã¢â¬â External environment Socio-political Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The BBC is a public service broadcasting organisation. Because of this there are more socio-political factors that impact upon the corporation and its operations than with most other businesses.Ã From a social point of view one has to look at both society as a whole as well as individual groups. Such groups can consist of ethnic, class and disabled minorities. All of these groups expect to receive equality of service from the corporation. This means that the corporation needs to ensure that it represents each group within all of its programme output. For example, it needs to ensure that within the public face of its broadcasting such minorities are adequately represented, be that in a factual or fictional environment. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On the political front the BBC also has to deal with a number of factions. In line with other businesses it has to pay heed to governments and judicial legislation, although the difference that exists with the BBC is that has a closer link in that it is a public corporation. Similarly, like other media, regulatory bodies overview its product and output. However, in addition to these, the BBC has two additional political factors to deal with. These are the Royal Charter, which has recently been reviewed (2006) and the BBC Trust. Ã Technological Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Trust is one of the key issues, which dictates the rate at which new technology is taken up. Often the speed at which technology develops is the one thing that makes trust difficult to achieve. No sooner has a user familiarised themselves with one system than this is rendered obsolete by a new one. Davis (2002) in his paper written for the Joint Information Services Committee posed the question that many users were asking. Ã¢â¬Å"How sure can one be that the outcome of an interaction is what it purports to be?Ã¢â¬ As it operates within the business medium, the BBC has greater access to technology than other organisations. It is an integral part of their broadcasting environment. This includes such areas as Broadband, digital and interactive technology. Internally it uses similar modern technology to other media businesses, in terms of computers, network systems in addition to the TV and radio broadcasting technology. The latter includes such things as cameras, film equipment and outside broadcast vehicles. However, as Paul Cheesbrough, BBC head of technology for production and technology direction, admitted in his interview with Miya Knights (2004), their internal systems do need updating in a number of areas, where he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Internally, our processes for producing and authoring content have been the same for many years and are still very physical. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a very distributed set-up with lots of physically-based processes in between.Ã¢â¬ The internal technology of an organisation is important (Glasson 1996) Economic Ã¢â¬â Geographical Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The BBC, unlike the commercial broadcasting media, does not receive money from other businesses in terms of advertising revenue, nor much in the way of sponsorship. It is funded in the main by a system of revenue from the television and radio licence, together with the annual financial support that it receives from the British government. Despite the wish, within some factions of the corporation to change this situation, so far this has been rejected. The only other of funding available to the BBC is the commercial sales it makes of its programmes to other broadcasting media throughout the world, including joint ventures, and sales of its products through other medium, such as books and publications, CDs and DVDs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã From a geographical point of view, the BBC is predominately a British based broadcaster, although it does have a world service for radio, originally set up with the intention of providing a link for armed forces overseas. Historically it has concentrated upon this limited geographical area through which to develop and market its products. However, it does produce programmes relating to and based upon many areas of the world. Nowadays it is also making use of the Internet through which to extend its audience. To add to its home-based productions, the BBC also buys programmes from other media throughout the world. Impact on IS strategy planning and design Ã¢â¬Å"The social, legal, political, ethical, and ecological issues facing business have never been more complex or more difficult to comprehend,Ã¢â¬ wrote Stephen Wartick (1997). This statement is particularly applicable to the BBC.Ã The factors mentioned previously form an intrinsic element of its Information Services at the planning and design stage. From a social point of view the BBC is required to cater for all sectors of society. The means that part of its strategy has to be geared towards minority groups. In addition it has historically been seen as a provider of learning, necessitating part of its information system strategy to be used in that direction. Political issues also impact upon its planning and design because, as a result of the need to divert resources to other areas set within its charter, this means that there are fewer resources available to pursue avenues that it might otherwise wish to develop. There have been instances in the past where the political forces have tried to introduce a modicum of pressure onto the corporation and, knowing this is a possibility, must impact on the corporation strategy. The area where the BBC does appear to both holding its own, and in some respects, making significant advances, is in technology. Whilst internally there are areas that need addressing, from an external and production standpoint the organisation is keeping up to date. Here it has encompassed the changes that have occurred since the Information era began in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, using modern technology to maintain its reputation as possibly the best broadcaster in the industry. The planning and designing stages are very important. As Paul Cheeseburgh (2004) observed Ã¢â¬Å"The term Ã¢â¬Ëdigital islandsÃ¢â¬â¢ means a lot in our industry, but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no point in moving from analogue to digital processes if those islands are disconnected.Ã¢â¬ Nevetherless they have made some of their processes more cost competitive as a result of technology, with the use of digital technology being an example of this. Economics probably has the greatest impact on the businesses IS strategies and their planning. Because its funding is subjected to restrictions than other broadcasters, this means that some of the innovative ideas that the BBC might wish to develop may not be possible due to financial restrictions. Similarly, it has a finite budget from which to take advantage of technology advances in the way that it would like to. Geographical issues have an impact on the IS strategy. Being a media corporation means that they have to plan for communication access sometimes to even the remotest parts of the world, and have a variety of climates to contend with. In the equatorial countries for instance, the corporation has had to make use of refrigerated broadcast vehicles. Impacts on IS strategy Risk Categorization Scales Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As has been widely publicised, Information systems and Technology attract risks and these manifest themselves in a number of ways. In all areas of life and business, there is the risk of sabotage (Stewart 2000) Technology for instance, suffers from hacking, virus and other dangers instigated from outside sources. Then there are the mechanical and accidental risks. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Knowing that these events are likely to happen even in the best protected of systems, it is vitally important that this eventuality is recognised and addressed at an early stage. Kim Andersen (2005) in his book on the subject, shows Ã¢â¬Å"how getting things rightÃ¢â¬ helps the information system. This is particularly relevant in a broadcasting organisation such as the BBC. At all stages of the development of an IS and IT strategy plan a consequence analysis should be carried out, this is relevant at each subsequent change as well. Within this process one needs to identify where the possibility of risks lies, what type of risks could attach themselves to the area in question and what the effect of those risks might be. Figure 1 (see appendices) gives an example of a consequence matrix. Effect/probability/Action Grid Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Having analysed the areas of risks and the types of risks that could occur, one then has to categorise and evaluate the risk. This means that one needs to first work out what the effects of that risk will be. Will it be in favour of the organisations and its IS and IT, or will it be fatal. Or will it be somewhere between the two. The next step it to ascertain the probability factor. What is the likelihood of the risk occurring, negligible or certainly? Armed with this information one can then work out what action to take in terms of prevention, assuming that the risk is not to the businesses advantage. Figure 2 (see appendices) shows a simple grid detail the possible results of this analysis. Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Following on from the previous analysis, the organisation needs to work out what impact this potential risk will have on the business. This can be categorised in three ways. Firstly there is confidentiality and privacy. The BBC IS and IT systems contain a lot of sensitive data, both from an internal and external point of view, such as staff and financial details. It could be embarrassing and costly if this information were to be obtained illegally, in addition to the fact that it could see the organization facing legal action for breach of confidentiality. This area will impact on the information system, (Mwangama 2006) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The second impact of risk could be to the integrity of accuracy of the data. If information is tampered with or altered in any way this would have serious consequences for the business. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The third area of impact is when the data or system is corrupted of deleted. In this case the system or database would be unable to operate and, in an extreme case the contents and data non-recoverable. Potential Negative Impacts 1) Technical Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã From a technical viewpoint the negative impact of the consequences of risk will attach to the strategy planning and design. For example the BBC would need to ensure that, by the introduction of new and more versatile systems and upgrades, this does not increase the risks. If this appears likely then the direction of the strategy will need to be reappraised. Similarly, if by installing new software the system becomes less secure in terms of the data access, the necessity and cost benefit of new software should be evaluated. This may result in technology and information system upgrades being delayed until such time as the security of the hardware can be guaranteed to be as risk proof as possible. 2) Non-Technical Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The organisation also needs to look at the negative issues that the consequence of risk may raise in relation to human and business processing issues. Employees and others involved with the Corporation have a right to expect personal information to be maintained in a confidential and secure manner. The shoulders of the organisation that has the information, to keep it secure. In addition to this is the damage of such a risk to the business processes. It is not only losing of the programmes, which would prove costly enough, it is also the potential of lost data, which in some areas could be irreplaceable. Ethical Issues Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Added to all of the above are the ethical issues surrounding risk. The BBC, like all organisations that keep sensitive and personal data, is subject to both the data protection ACT and their own professional code of conduct and ethics. These include a duty to not harm those for whom you are responsible for and to respect their right to privacy, which includes ensuring that any personal information that they give to you are kept safe. Thus it cannot be passed to a third party, either by the organisation itself or by the intervention of an outside party. Even if that third party is committing an illegal act it does not absolve the corporation from liability. In the modern legal environment, if such an event occurs, the possibility of legal action being taken the organisation is very likely. The code of conduct for the BBC also states that it sees part of its duty being to respect and honour human rights. This extends to ensuring that the technology that is installed within its systems offers the same rights. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition to the rights of the individual whose rights have been violated there is the impact that such a breech will have on the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ own reputation. According to a newspaper report written by Owen Gibson (2005) the BBC recently revised their code of ethics to take account of some of these issues. The Next Five Years Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Strategic planning for the future of information systems is important. (Ward & Peppard 2002) A business needs a Ã¢â¬Å"clear vision of where it is trying to go.Ã¢â¬ (Andersen 2004) and to produce the correct strategy the BBC needs to know what events will impact on the strategy. External changes In terms of the future, the next five years are likely to produce changes of significance in terms of IS and IT in a number of areas, in hard and software (Mark Haggerty 2006).Ã The advances in wireless technology are one area where these advances are proving to be particularly rapid. This development will allow both television and computers to become really possible, with consumers able to carry the receivers in pockets. They will then be in a position of being able to view at any time and in any place. Wireless technology development will also have an impact on broadcasting in that it will allow ease of access for people involved in news reporting, such as with the BBC. Using these systems, particularly in their news department, the corporation will be able to achieve instant news reporting from almost anywhere in the world. In addition the reports will be able to be accessed and reported on air in real time, in other words as it happens. Continued development in satellite technology will also improve the ability of the BBC to achieve its strategy of moving closer towards a more Ã¢â¬Å"on-demandÃ¢â¬ consumer environment. Video conferencing is set to be one of the main growth areas in technology over the next five years. (Laura Hailstone 2006). This technology is already being used and implemented by a growing number of businesses. In addition to the business use, this technology is set to move into the private sector, allow for projects such as games shows to be conducted with participants not having to move from their home. With increasing computer technology being incorporated within television sets, the opportunities are available for television presenters to be able to interact directly with the consumer. There will be continued developments in the field of interactive media. The continuing improvements in this area will eliminate the need for there to be two or three machines in a household in order to give the consumer flexibility and choice. Within the next five years the facility of recording direct from the TV should improve substantially, allowing additional onset recording facilities, improving upon what systems such as sky offer already. Interaction will also affect the BBCÃ¢â¬â¢s learning facilities leading to closer interaction between teacher and learner, (G. Conole et al 2000). B. Davies (2002) also showed how modern and future information system developments are impacting on users in the education arena. An area of significant relevance to the BBC is the continued development of compact storage systems, such as the MP3. From an internal point of view this will mean less space utilised for storage of produced material, therefore reducing the corporations costs in the area of storage. With the increase in globalisation, business systems will also witness significant innovation over the next five years. Such programmes as the multi-national, multi-lingual supply chain software could be implemented within the BBC, providing it with more accuracy and accessibility in terms of its global operations, allow it to work more closely with the stakeholders who supply the corporation and ensure that the quality of the product is maintained. Internal changes Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The BBC will see changes in a number of areas of IS and IT. It is expected that within the next five years media broadcasters will need to keep updating their technology and systems to meet the increasing demands from the public in the way in which programmes are presented. Digital development is something that the BBC sees as having a significant effect over their programming abilities over the next five years. From the point of view of the production side of their programmes, a test run on one programme has shown that it produces a significant cost reduction. More developments of this nature are planned. Development of the digital technology for the end user is also seen as a means of being able to extend the ability of the viewer to have more control over the way in which they organise their personal viewing or listening schedules. The corporation is planning to use this to restructure the way in which it produces programmes and extend the range of interaction with the consumer. Further developments on the World Wide Web are also being looked at. This will provide the BBC with the ability to make its services available in a number of new ways, including providing a service where programs can be downloaded and watched for a limited period, thereby avoiding the possibility of this being stored and affecting others possible sales of the programmes. As part of this development they are working with all of the major software organisations in the development of products, which will open new opportunities in terms of programming. The BBC sees, what its Director-General Mark Thompson (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"On DemandÃ¢â¬ television as the way forward in technology. In addition to this the BBC are also developing ways in which their programmes can be transmitted for screening on a range of portable devices. From an in house perspective the BBC sees that IT developments over the next five years will enable it to integrate all of its in house operations, linking together internal systems that previously have been disconnected. Internally there will also be changes in terms of office systems and other related technology usages. MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s chief technology officer, in his interview with Chris Nuttall (1999) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"every five years there is a revolution in the computer industry.Ã¢â¬ Therefore it is necessary that organisations like the BBC have a strategy prepared for it. Evidence Research shows that all of the changes outlined are evidenced. Tafazolli, Rahim (2006) comments Ã¢â¬Å"that the days of the totally wireless technology are close and that soon consumers will be able to access the media wherever they are.Ã¢â¬ Future Tech (2006), have noted that one organisation is already well advanced on a system of voice recognition for the purpose of media viewing, amongst other applications. The article also reveals that MIT are developing the computer glasses, which will make operation of computers and televisions much less tiresome, allowing the consumer to operate TV and Computer without using hands. The article also reveals that hardware companies are working to make the computer less visible. This means that, instead of the current box on the desk, they may be incorporated in the TV or portable devices, which can be, located and operated from anywhere. The BBC launched Ã¢â¬Å"Creative Future ProjectÃ¢â¬ . Part of the remit for this project is to continue to monitor the advances in new technology with a view to using the technology as part of its development strategy for the future. The project, and the BBCÃ¢â¬â¢s IT department are working with a number of the largest software houses, such as Microsoft and Apple, to development programmes and systems which can assist in the development of broadcasting. Energy consideration is already an area that the BBC is aware of. In the future the role of Information systems and technology will take on more significance in terms of its contribution to energy conservation, (J & R. Franchi 2004) Bibliography Andersen, Kim Viborg. (2004) The Past and Future of Information Systems. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd Carpenter, Leona, Shaw, Simon and Prescott, Andrew (eds) (1988) Towards the Digital Library, The British Library, London Conole, G., Jacobs, G., Squires, D (ed) (2000), The Changing Face of Learning Technology. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1-3. Davies, B. (2002), How new technologies are impacting on users, Joint Information Systems Committee.Ã Retrieved 17 July 2006 from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=pub_inform2 Franchi, John. R. Franchi (2004) Energy, Technology and Directions for the Future. Elsevier Academic Press. Future Tech. (2006) Future Computing. Retrieved 12 July 2006 from http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~jwb24/newtech/integrate.html Gibson, Owen. (2005) New Ethics Code for BBC. The Guardian Glasson, Bernard, C, Vogel, Doug, Bots, Pieter and Nunamaker, Jay (1996) Information Systems and Technology in the International Office of the Future. Chapman & Hall. UK Haggerty, Mark. (2005) GMS Software development. The next five years. Clientside News Hallstone, Laura (2006). VC market set to grow over the next five years. Retrived 16 July 2006 from www.vcunet.com Knights, Miya (2004) Interview with Paul Cheeseburgh: BBC sees new technology horizons. Retrieved 18 July 2006 from http://www.vnunet.com/vnunet/analysis/2132111/bbc-sees-technology-horizon Mwangama, Ena. (2006) Information in the Next Five Years. Retrieved 18 July 2006 from http://www.comptechlib.com/326.html Nuttall, Chris. (1999). Windows to lose its crown within five years. Retrieved 10 July 2006 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/253592.stm/ Press Release (2006) Response to the white paper. Retrieved 16 July 2006 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2006/03_march/14/white.shtml Review of the BBCÃ¢â¬â¢s Royal Charter. (July 2006). Retrieved 17 July 2006 from http://www.bbccharterreview.org.uk/pdf_documents/BBCRoyal%20Charter_july06.pdf Stewart, R.A. (2000). Dam Risk Management (Invited Paper). Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical and Geological Engineering (GeoEng2000). Melbourne, pp. 721-748. Tafazolli, Rahim (2006) Technologies for the Wireless Future. Wireless World Research Forum. UK Thompson, Mark (Director General) (2005) Creative Future Project. Retrieved 16 July 2006 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/thefuture/text/creative_future.html Ward, John and Peppard, Joe. (2002) Strategic Planning for Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons Wartick, Stephen L. (1997) International Business and Society. Blackwell Publishers  British Broadcasting Corporation
Friday, November 8, 2019
How To Grow Sodium Nitrate Crystals Sodium nitrate is a common chemical, found in food, fertilizer, glass enamel, and pyrotechnics. Sodium nitrate, NaNO3, forms colorless hexagonal crystals. Although these crystals are a bit more challenging to grow than some of the beginner crystals, the interesting crystal structure makes them worth the effort. The crystal somewhat resembles calcite, exhibiting some of the same properties. Sodium nitrate crystals can be used to examine double refraction, cleavage, and glide. Sodium Nitrate Crystal Growing Solution Dissolve 110 grams sodium nitrate per 100 ml hot water. This will be a supersaturated solution. One method of growing crystals is to allow this solution to cool in an undisturbed location and allow it to produce crystals as the liquid evaporates.Another method of growing this crystal is to grow a single crystal in a sealed container from a supersaturated solution. If you choose to follow this method, prepare the aforementioned solution, allow this solution to cool, then add a couple of grains of sodium nitrate and seal the container. The excess sodium nitrate will deposit on the grains, producing a saturated sodium nitrate solution. Allow a couple of days for this to occur.Pour off the saturated solution. Pour a small amount of this solution into a shallow dish. Allow the liquid to evaporate, to produce small seed crystals. Select a crystal or two for further growth.To prepare the supersaturated growing solution, to your existing solution add 3 grams of sodium nitrate per 100 ml of w ater in the original solution. So, if you prepared 300 ml of solution, you would add an extra 9 grams of sodium nitrate. Carefully add your seed crystal to this liquid. You can suspend the crystal from a nylon monofilament. A nylon monofilament or wire is used because it wont wick up the solution, causing evaporation.Seal the jar and allow the crystals to grow at a constant temperature, someplace they wont be disturbed. Sodium nitrate is very sensitive to temperature changes, so maintaining a constant temperature is important. If you have difficulty maintaining a temperature, you can place the sealed jar inside a water bath. If you dont see crystal growth after a few days, try lowering the temperature slightly.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Midlife Crisis Culture essays When I was 25, a male friend of mine was 39, rapidly approaching 40 and he was suffering a midlife crisis. At the age of 25 I had no concept of the meaning of midlife crisis, and I remember him thrusting the book Passages (Sheehy 19 ) at me and he said it would explain it all. I read the book and at the time I thought scathingly what a load of nonsense. A good excuse to wallow around in self pity. However, when I reached the same age and experienced my own midlife crisis, I grabbed Passages (Sheehy 19 ) hoping that this time it might provide me with some answers. However, what I discovered were theories about midlife crisis written in the 1970s which were mostly outdated in the 1990s. The main explanations for experiencing a midlife crisis for women were associated with the ageing body, the empty nest syndrome and being unable to cope after desertion of husbands. (Sheehy 19 , Turner The ageing body seems to occupy a lot of the material written about womens midlife crisis. However this is not something that I believe that I dwelt on. Yes, at times I feel a more tired than I used, no I do not go out drinking and socialising several times a week and yes I do feel a few aches and pains that I did not have before. But it did not depress me and my drastic actions were not a last ditch effort at recapturing my youth. Orenstein ( ) talks about women feeling invisible as their beauty and youth slip away. However I find this concept very shallow. Perhaps not being a great beauty myself, I feel fortunate that I have not experienced this insecurity. The ageing body in relation to menopause is considered to be an explanation for some womens midlife crisis (Coney 19 , Sheehy 19 , Bannister 2000). For some women drastic physical changes are accompanied by intense and unchar ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Animal Liberation Front (ALF) - USA - Essay Example According to media and other researchers, the group could not stand against criminal like activities that were being conducted in the name of animal liberation under the flag or ALF or any other name. During 2002 the department that is responsible for monitoring and controlling extremist like activities reported that ALF has used violent terrorist like activities for their operations and have cost billions by destroying property but have ensured that no human being is harmed 2. 1. Don Liddick,. Eco-terrorism: radical environmental and animal liberation movements. Westport, (Conn.: Praeger, 2006) 127. 2. Yonah Alexander and Michael Kraft (eds.). Evolution of U.S. counterterrorism policy. Westport, (Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2008) 241 - 250. During the period of 2005, homeland security department of US compiled a list of groups that may be a serious terrorist threat to US and within that list, ALF was even considered as a plausible terrorist threat and the US decided to us e its resources against their activities 2. The history of this group can be dated back to the end of 1963 when John Prestige, a British news reporter, gained the duty of viewing an event where hunters had to hunt a deer who was pregnant 3. He stood against this activity and formed HAS (Hunt Saboteurs Association); the aim of this association was to make sure that huntsmen fail in their act of hunting 3. Later, one of the group members named Ronnie Lee made his own group to help animals, this group comprised of young individuals who were against the act of animal brutality, and the group was recognized as the Band of Mercy 4. ALF came into existence and made its appearance when the founder of HAS was taken into defense officials custody for conducting a raid on the Oxford Laboratory Animal Colonies. People revolted against their arrest and later the founder was assigned imprisonment for three years from where he continued to pursue animal liberation by going on a hunger strike and d emanding for vegetarian food in jails 5. Later he was released on parole basis for 12 months; as soon as he gained freedom, he started his activities and to make the group look fiercer to others, he changed the name of the group from Band of Mercy to Animal Liberation Front 6. 3. Norm Phelps. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA. (New York: Lantern Books, 2007) 201 4. Margaret Pasewicz,. Cultural encyclopedia of vegetarianism. Santa Barbara, (CA: Greenwood, 2010) 27 5. Harvey Kushner, W. Encyclopedia of terrorism. Thousand Oaks,( Calif.: Sage Publications, 2003)10 6. Gus Martin,. The Sage encyclopedia of terrorism. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, (Calif.: SAGE Publications, 2011) 45 The group was not only active behind the walls, they even conducted their activities outside the wall, the group had no leader and group members had to follow the stated guidelines of the movement at all times. According to the movements guidelines, to increase economic cost of those who make revenues by manipulating animals, to provide freedom to animals from places where they were treated very badly, to publicize the harsh treatment animals had to go through, to ensure that no animal was being harmed and those individuals who were living in accordance to the constitution created by the movement were entitled as members of ALF even if they had not